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Alexeevna, A. M., Savitovna G.G. & Grigor’evich, K. V. (2017). Parents education level and youths educational strategy. Hungarian Educational Research Journal, 7(4), 46-57, DOI:10.14413/HERJ/7/4/5
Parents’ Education Levels and Youths’ Educational Strategies
Mariya Alexeevna Abramova[1], Galina Savitovna Goncharova [2] & Vsevolod Grigor’evich Kostyuk[3]
Abstract
The article is devoted to the analysis of influence of a family at choice by youth of educational strategy. Surveys of seniors are conducted in Novosibirsk and the Novosibirsk region. Results of polls have allowed differentiating families on the educational level of parents. This idea results from earlier studies on the role of the family in forming attitudes of the youth that allow them to develop their adaptation potential and which was tackled by the authors in their monograph “Sociocultural Adaptation of the Youth of the North” (Abramova, et all, 2011). Dependence between high education level of parents and a reference point of youth on receiving the higher education has been as a result revealed. As for parents with lower education their children are apt to have lower simpler ambitions for their future. The analysis of value orientations, as regards the choice of educational strategy, shows that all school graduates consider further education first of all as a possibility of further professional development. It has also been shown that differences in perception of the value of attaining postsecondary education are conditioned by youth’s different life attitudes which are formed to some extent by parents who have different levels of education.
Keywords: university, youth, value orientations
 
Introduction
The development of the country is determined by the human capital accumulated and realized in the country, considered as a factor in the development of the economy, society and the family (Kapelyushnikov 2012). One of the topical tasks of the country at this stage is to maintain the human capital and create individuals the best conditions for their self-development and self-realization.
Studies into the relationship of family and education have been a traditional set of issues for sociology. Family and system of education (Konstantinovsky, 2008; Roshchina, 2012) are of big importance in analysing socio-cultural differentiation of qualitative and quantitative properties in such fundamental sociological concepts as social mobility (Sorokin, 2005), theory of human capital (Becker, 2003),theory of cultural capital (Bourdieu, 2007).The role of family and education, of these most important institutions of socialization and enculturation of an individual appears to be essential for studying the issues of socio-cultural adaptation of youth under conditions of modern transformations (Abramova, Goncharova, Kostyuk, 2011; Current psychosocial problems, 2016).
Research Questions
We will examine the impact of the educational level of parents on the educational plans and strategies of their children - school leavers in this article. We mean that educational strategies are a set of problems (questions) which students are solving to determine their goals, plans, values and motives for obtaining an education. They involve choices whether to go on only with studies or to combine studies and a job: the choice of education type – with educational fee or free of charge; choice of educational institution – state or commercial; and its location.
1.    To reveal typology of families on education level of parents.
2.    To reveal communication between plans of graduates of schools and education level of parents.
3.    To consider features in respondents' choice of educational strategies depending on gender.
4.    To consider features in the choice by respondents of education strategy depending on valuable installations.
Method
The Russian sociology has been greatly contributed to with its studies into the connection of the parents’ education level and their children’s educational strategy conducted by V. N. Shubkin (Shubkin, 2007), D. L. Konstantinovsky (Konstantinovsky, 2008), A.V. Ochkina (Ochkina, 2010), I. P. Popova (Popova, 2013) and others. It is extremely important to assess the effect of material and spiritual resources of the family on life and education trajectories of the youth, on processes of social differentiation and integration, professional and social succession.
Usually current investigations (Konstantinovsky, 2008; Ochkina, 2012; Popova, 2013) dwell on the influence of socio-professional status of parents upon the choice of future educational and professional trajectories of their children and therefore upon succession and alteration of this status. We consider status to denote the position the individual takes in the system of professional and social relations in which his/her education is the initial point for determination of their status.
Theories of human and cultural capital present education - in its current paradigm of continued education – as an essential resource of the individual and as a content component of his/her socio-professional activities. The social and cultural resources of family – level of education, value hierarchy, ideals, attitudes, bringing- up methods and traditions - are sources of “initial capital accumulation” by the rising generation.
The analysis of the impact of parents’ educational level as a social and cultural resource upon their children’s educational strategies has been carried out on the basis of the data of the sample inquiry that was conducted by the Department of Sociology of the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences under D. L. Konstantinovsky’s scientific guidance in schools in the city of Novosibirsk and the Novosibirsk Territory in 2013: 618 graduates of 11 comprehensive secondary schools of Novosibirsk and the Novosibirsk Territory were interviewed: the city of Novosibirsk – 356, other towns of the Territory -177 and the rural areas – 85 individuals.
To verify the hypothesis of the connection between the level of parents’ education and the choice of educational strategy by their children the respondents’ families were typologized. As a result, a hierarchy of family types by the level of parents’ education – from lower (incomplete secondary, secondary, primary vocational education of both or one of the parents) to higher level (higher education of both parents ) was constructed. This typologization suggests accepting some formal characteristics. However, the families where one of the parents did not have any education or had incomplete education were also taken into account:
When parents had different educational levels, the level of the parent with higher educational level was taken for the basis of the typology. For instance, a family of type 2: if father (or mother) had secondary specialized education and the other parent had lower educational level. Similarly, respondents belonged to families of type 4 when one of the parents had higher education. The typology in question does not take into account difference in levels of parents’ education, therefore it does not allow to analyse the impact degree separately of mother or father. There seems to be another very interesting task therein.
Results
The First Research Question
Comparison of the educational level of parents and educational strategies of children showed that the parents education influence on the choice of the planned level of education for boys and girls. (see Table 1).
Table 1. Impact of parents’ education on the educational level which respondents plan to reach, % of graduates intending to go on with their studies or those intending to combine studies with work
Planned education
Level
Graduates by gender
Boys
Girls
Levels of parents’ education
1
2
3
4
5
6
total
1
2
3
4
5
6
total
To graduate from higher education institution with bachelor's degree
14,3
15,8
11,1
0,0
15,4
25,7
17,1
15,4
9,5
27,9
25,8
32,1
19,2
23,7
To graduate from higher education institution with the bachelor's degree and then master's degree
23,8
21,1
16,7
28,6
21,2
25,7
22,7
11,5
28,6
17,7
19,4
25,0
33,3
23,7
To graduate from higher education institution with the diploma of specialist
14,3
5,3
33,3
14,3
28,8
25,7
24,1
3,9
14,3
13,9
12,9
16,1
20,5
15,1
To graduate from higher educational institution but I have no idea of the kind of the diploma yet
28,5
36,8
33,3
42,9
28,8
20,3
28,2
38,5
42,8
29,1
38,7
23,2
23,1
29,2
To attain secondary specialized education at technical high school or college
14,3
10,5
2,8
7,1
5,8
1,3
5,1
11,5
0,0
11,4
3,2
1,8
3,9
5,9
To learn a trade at vocational school (PTU) or at technical high school or to take courses
4,8
10,5
2,8
7,1
0,0
0,0
2,3
19,2
4,8
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
2,1
To attain tertiary education (post graduate courses, doctorate)
0.0
0.0
0.0
0
0,0
1,3
0,5
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
1,8
0,0
0,3
Source: authors’ own source
The majority of the young people - both boys and girls – plan to get higher education (92; 93%). It was revealed that the transition from a lower to a higher education level of parents the proportion of children planning to graduate is increasing. Maximum wishes of the graduates (96; 80 %) are wishes of those graduates whose parents both have higher education, while the minimum ones (69; 80 %) are typical of children, in particular of girls, whose parents have the lowest level of education.
The analysis of personal plans of the respondents to continue their education after finishing school has shown that the graduates as a whole plan either to go on studying (59.7%) or to combine studies with a job (35.8 %). Those who plan to combine studies with work make up 45.8 % and they are mostly from the families of type 1 (parents have got education of the lowest level); their percentage exceeds the average of all the family types by 10%.
The analysis also makes it clear that in planning strategy to get further education the respondents disclose the difference by sex in considering the number of study years and type of courses (baccalaureate, specialization, master’s degree courses).
Male graduates, in comparison with female graduates, would like to a lesser degree to graduate from the higher education institution with the diploma of bachelor (by 6.6 %; 17.1 % against 23.7 %), mostly they prefer to get the diploma of specialist (by 9 %; 24.1 % against 15.1 %). Female graduates would like to have the diploma as soon as possible (after a short period of studying), and male graduates would like the diploma that provides broader specialization. Perhaps, this is connected with the girls' desires to have “status” jobs and decent earnings. For male graduates it is not only good earnings that are important but also a possibility of a good career .
Most graduates planning to attain secondary specialized education in technical high schools, college, and also in a specialized professional training school, or technical high schools are graduates whose parents have lower level of education (according to the suggested typology): they are children from families of type 1 and 2 (19.1 % and 21% correspondingly) and among female graduates they represent families of type 1 - 3.
The choice of the form of education correlates with parents’ education: 23.1% of girls whose parents have low education ( type 1) plan to take evening or correspondence courses, whereas only 1.8 and 6.4 % of girls from families of family types 5 and 6 have similar plans. One cannot see such a clear-cut differentiation among male graduates, they are oriented at the full-time courses (by 2.7%; 94.4 % against 91.7 %)and more seldom at the evening courses (by 3.3 %). This form of education chosen by male graduates may mainly be conditioned by a probable calling up for military service and full-time courses give the possibility of granting military service deferment.
Male graduates also more often than female graduates are oriented at free-of charge education (44.6 % against 29.0 %) and it is extremely seldom that they are oriented at education on the paid basis. Probably this strategy is conditioned by the level of financial provision in the parents’ family. The part of male graduates belonging to three less financially provided family groups – in assessing material position of parents – is by 8.6 % bigger (54.4% against 45.8%).
The analysis of educational institution attractiveness has shown that the major group of graduates (90%) choose educational facilities of the city of Novosibirsk and of the Novosibirsk Territory: male graduates – 86%; female graduates – 93%. Male respondents wish to go to other cities of Russia, including Moscow and St. Petersburg, more often than girls, though the competition there is as a rule bigger and the entry requirements are higher.
The Second Research Question
Motives of education and valuable orientations of graduates of schools at the choice of educational strategy.
In the process of the survey, the respondents were asked: "Why are you planning to study?" The question was half-open. A set of 13 values was proposed and the answers to them "important", "not very important", "not important". The respondents were asked to rank 13 values and most of them put in the first place the values that are indirectly associated with their future work. 95-96% of the respondents answered that it was necessary to go on studying mainly in order “to attain a job that will correspond to their interests and inclinations”. Then 94-95% of the respondents said that they wanted “to find a well-paid job”, 93% - “to be a competent worker”, 88-91% – “to get a prestigious work”, 84-86% -“to find a job easily in own country”. Further on, they gave reasons that were more of social type rather than the professional one:  “to go on with studies to establish necessary interrelations, friendships”; “for the sake of living an interesting life of students”, etc.
We compared the type of family and the responses of young people about the reasons for getting education (see Table 2).
Table 2. Impact of parents’ education on formation of education values that are socially significant for graduates (responses “important” and “very important in % )
Why are you planning to go on with studies?
Graduates by gender
Boys
Girls
Levels of parents’ education
1
2
3
4
5
6
total
1
2
3
4
5
6
total
Educational values of social significance:
To have necessary relations and acquaintances
66,7
57,9
55,6
71,4
76,9
71,6
68,5
57,7
81,0
62,0
71,0
69,6
66,7
66,7
To obtain “crusts” without which there is no way to success
66,7
68,4
61,1
78,6
65,4
59,5
63,9
73,1
66,7
73,4
61,3
64,3
44,9
62,2
This is established order
61,9
68,4
50,0
64,3
57,7
55,4
57,4
69,2
57,1
59,5
51,6
55,4
48,7
55,7
I am fond of studying
38,1
57,9
36,1
50,0
50,0
47,3
46,3
57,7
47,6
58,2
41,9
75,0
55,1
58,1
For the sake of living a merry life of students
33,3
57,9
38,9
71,4
57,7
35,1
45,4
46,2
38,1
53,2
58,1
51,8
48,7
50,5
To find a job abroad
38,1
36,8
44,4
42,9
50,0
58,1
49,1
46,2
38,1
43,0
41,9
50,0
62,8
49,5
This is my parents’ will
52,4
47,4
47,2
50,0
48,1
44,6
47,2
34,6
47,6
45,6
45,2
42,9
32,1
40,5
To find a partner or a spouse
19,0
42,1
27,8
50,0
26,9
31,1
30,6
23,1
19,0
19,0
16,1
25,0
16,7
19,6
Source: authors’ own source
The most significant motive is for both boys and girls to "learn to make the necessary acquaintances and connections." The least important is "my parents want it" and "to find a partner, spouse". Moreover, It was evident that in the group of the boys establishing necessary relations and acquaintances during the study process was more important for those of them whose parents had higher levels of education (levels 4 -6) in comparison with those who were the same age but their parents had education of a lower level. A similar inference can be made for boys and girls whose motive was “in order to find work abroad”.
The motive of obtaining the diploma about education from families with lower (the first – the third type of families) education levels of parents is more important for girls, than for their peers from families with high levels (the fourth – the sixth) educations.
Analysis of reference points of the choice by youth of educational institution: "the convenient arrangement", "gives a good education", "it is easy to come to him", "my friends have come to him", "there are necessary communications for receipt", "this prestigious educational institutions", etc. – has allowed to reveal accurate dependence on family type.
For the boys: the higher their parents’ level of education is, the more important the prestige of the institution is for them ( 81.1% - 85.7% of “very important” and “important” responses for graduates from families of levels 4-6, with 71.4 – 78.9 % of these responses for graduates from families where parents have the lowest level of education (1-3). For the girls from all the types of families the prestige of the chosen institution is even more important than for the boys, but there was no evident dependence on parents’ educational level (88.5% of responses –for the first type of families; 82.1% - for type 6).
A higher education level of parents is more significantly for girls than for their contemporaries from other types of families, opinion of parents is important ("my parents want this") at the choice of desirable educational institution (29,5 – 38,7% of answers against 19,2 – 34,2%).
The Third Research Question
It is expedient to consider the impact of parents’ educational level on the occupational aspect of their children’s education-choice strategy. The graduates’ value hierarchy of study continuation shows that the first places (as it was mentioned above) are taken by value orientations which are directly associated with the sphere of future occupational activities. Table 3 shows what is the most important for young people from families of different types in their choice and assessment of their own occupational activity.
Table 3. Impact of parents’ education on assessing the profession significance by graduates (responses “very important” and “important” in %)
What is of significance for you in assessing an occupation/
Graduates by gender
Boys
Girls
Levels of parents’ education
1
2
3
4
5
6
total
1
2
3
4
5
6
total
It provides for a good income
100
90,5
97,5
94,1
96,6
93,6
95,4
100
95,2
98,8
96,9
92,9
93,6
95,9
It gives you levels of power and control
54,5
47,6
52,5
82,4
66,1
62,8
61,2
53,8
71,4
60,5
46,9
51,8
53,8
55,8
It requires a high qualification
(intellect, creativity, etc.)
72,7
71,4
85,0
64,7
84,7
85,9
81,4
69,2
61,9
85,2
93,8
75,0
76,9
78,9
It is recognized and respected in the society
72,7
81,0
77,5
70,6
86,4
82,1
80,6
80,8
85,7
81,5
87,5
78,6
79,5
81,3
People need it
90,9
81,0
80,0
76,5
91,5
82,1
84,4
76,9
90,5
84,0
87,5
78,6
84,6
83,3
It is easier to obtain
31,8
42,9
30,0
47,1
47,5
32,1
37,6
53,8
33,3
30,9
21,9
25,0
19,2
27,9
One can always find a job having this occupation
81,8
81,0
75,0
94,1
86,4
79,5
81,9
73,1
90,5
84,0
68,8
85,7
79,5
81,0
It is in demand in any country
81,8
57,1
87,5
70,6
89,8
79,5
81,0
65,4
81,0
79,0
75,0
85,7
75,6
77,9
It makes one independent
77,3
61,9
77,5
82,4
84,7
85,9
81,0
69,2
81,0
80,2
71,9
83,9
79,5
78,9
                               
Source: authors own source
Both for young men and for girls it became the most significant reference point of the choice of future profession – future income.  Moreover, it is even much more significant for girls from families where parents have got lower levels of education. The value “Importance for people”, taking the second place in the general hierarchy of assessment of occupations and professions for boys, turned out to be independent from parents’ level of education.
For children from families with a higher level of education of parents, the prestige of the profession is more significant (more typical for families of boys), activities requiring highly qualified training, the demand for professions in the country and abroad. For them it is important to choose the occupation that will allow them to be independent, give them the levels of power and control (it is very important for the boys).
The lower the level of education of parents, the more important it is for girls from these families to choose an occupation that is easy to attain and that is respected in the society.
Thus, families with much higher level of education give reasons for their children to strive for attaining education that will enable them to be engaged in work, which is prestigious, wanted in the native country and abroad and which will allow them to be independent and to have levels of power and control.
The impact of parents’ education on value orientations of boys and girls in their choice of educational and occupational strategies is also confirmed in analysing their orientation at their life goals (see table 4).
Table 4. DisabilityImpact of parents’ education on formation of life goals by graduates (response “I shall do my best” in %)
What is important for you?
Graduates by gender
Boys
Girls
Levels of parents’ education
1
2
3
4
5
6
total
1
2
3
4
5
6
total
To attain good education
45,5
57,1
55,0
64,7
61,0
61,5
58,6
46,2
66,7
64,2
71,9
73,2
70,5
67,0
To get a well-paid job
72,7
71,4
67,5
82,4
71,2
70,5
71,3
80,8
57,1
76,5
71,9
76,8
74,4
74,5
To make up happy family
68,2
76,2
75,0
76,5
67,8
70,5
71,3
69,2
71,4
66,7
68,8
64,3
67,9
67,3
To start my own business
27,3
9,5
35,0
41,2
42,4
41,0
36,3
34,6
23,8
28,4
25,0
28,6
34,6
29,9
To become wealthy
50,0
33,3
27,5
41,2
35,6
39,7
37,1
30,8
28,6
22,2
21,9
21,4
24,4
23,8
To be engaged in favourite activity
63,6
66,7
67,5
70,6
71,2
74,4
70,5
57,7
57,1
74,1
59,4
71,4
71,8
68,7
To make my career
59,1
42,9
50,0
76,5
55,9
57,7
56,1
61,5
52,4
56,8
53,1
62,5
55,1
57,1
To visit other countries
45,5
28,6
40,0
64,7
44,1
56,4
47,7
46,2
57,1
45,7
50,0
51,8
60,3
52,0
To bring up good children
81,8
81,0
77,5
82,4
78,0
83,3
80,6
76,9
81,0
76,5
84,4
73,2
79,5
77,9
To live a life not worse than that of other people
31,8
38,1
60,0
70,6
47,5
42,3
47,3
65,4
47,6
43,2
40,6
46,4
38,5
44,6
To have friends who are friends indeed
63,6
66,7
75,0
82,4
74,6
73,1
73,0
53,8
52,4
51,9
43,8
57,1
69,2
56,8
To live honestly
45,5
47,6
62,5
41,2
52,5
47,4
50,6
53,8
42,9
49,4
50,0
44,6
51,3
49,0
To have an interesting job
59,1
71,4
55,0
88,2
76,3
67,9
68,8
76,9
57,1
76,5
65,6
69,6
76,9
72,8
Source: authors’ own source
The Fourth Research Question
Let us consider only those goals that are directly related to the choice of the level of education and profession. Their hierarchy for the boys is as follows:1)”to be engaged in activities I love most” (74.4%); 2) “ to get a well - paid job” (70.5 %); “ to have an interesting job” (67.9 %); 4) “to attain good education” (61.5 %); 5) “to make my career” (57.7 %); 6) “to start a business of my own” (41 %).
It should be noted that all these goals, viz., engagement in activities that are most appealing to one, an interesting job, engagement in business, were highlighted by the response “I shall do my best to achieve my goal”. It was most often given by boys from highly educated families (type 4-6).
As for the girls the most important goals were: 1) “to get a well – paid job” (74.5 %); 2) “to have an interesting job” (72.8 %); 3) “ to be engaged in activities that are most appealing to one” (68.7 %); 4) “to attain good education” (67 %); 5) “to make my career” (57.1 %). For them their own business was of no importance at all (only 29.9 % of responses). The impact of their parents’ education is clearly traced by such female graduates’ goals as “good education” and “activities that are most appealing to one”; the female respondents from highly educated families are ready to attain them with great persistence.
When examining the opinions of graduates about what factors and to what extent they influence the enrollment in a university, it became clear that the hierarchy of these factors for both boys and girls is almost the same. In the first place there is a high score in the unified state examination (92 – 94 % of the responses “very important” and “important”), further on there are “calling, abilities”, “thirst for knowledge”, “self-preparation”, “ possibility to pay education fee”(rank 5 for girls, rank 6 for boys; this is the most significant difference, 11.6 %). The lowest ranks (11-12%) are taken by the following factors “it is necessary to live in a big city where there are higher education institutions” (45 – 47 % of responses) and “interrelations, acquaintances” (43 – 51 %). The medium-position is occupied by the factors “the good school”, “a small competition at the higher education institution”, “ awards for Olympiads”, “studies with tutors”, “ studies at the preparatory courses” (they are all within the range of 55 – 61 % of the “very important” and “important” responses). Nevertheless, parents’ education affects the formation of graduates’ ideas of the significance of certain factors (see Table 5).
Table 5. Impact of parents’ education on formation of the idea of successful joining higher education institution for graduates (HEI) (responses “very important” and “important” in %)
Factors of successful joining higher educational institution
Graduates by gender,
Boys
Girls
Level of parents' education
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
Calling, abilities
95,2
89,5
83,3
85,7
92,3
91,9
88,5
95,2
93,7
93,5
94,6
92,3
Thirst for knowledge
85,7
94,7
80,6
85,7
82,7
83,8
92,3
76,2
93,7
90,3
96,4
92,3
Good school
81
94,7
63,9
100
69,2
74,3
80,8
66,7
75,9
77,4
71,4
67,9
Additional self-preparation
81
84,2
80,6
78,6
82,7
85,1
88,5
85,7
89,9
93,5
91,1
84,6
Studies at preparatory courses
52,4
57,9
58,3
64,3
67,3
50
61,5
42,9
55,7
54,8
62,5
47,4
Studies with tutors
47,6
52,6
61,1
85,7
59,6
55,4
50
38,1
55,7
61,3
53,6
55,1
High USE score
90,5
89,5
94,4
100
92,3
91,9
84,6
90,5
93,7
93,5
96,4
94,9
Awards at Olympiads
38,1
47,4
52,8
57,1
63,5
44,6
38,5
57,1
57
64,5
53,6
52,6
Interrelations and acquaintances
47,6
36,8
47,2
57,1
57,7
50
42,3
52,4
46,8
32,3
55,4
34,6
Possibility to pay education fee
71,4
63,2
66,7
71,4
71,2
66,2
69,2
85,7
78,5
74,2
87,5
69,2
Low competition at the HEI
61,9
52,6
47,2
85,7
73,1
55,4
53,8
76,2
70,9
58,1
64,3
52,6
Living in a big city where HEIs are located
23,8
21,1
38,9
64,3
48,1
52,7
38,5
47,6
44,3
38,7
57,1
47,4
Source: authors own source
The results of polls have shown that dependence between education level of parents and perception of children that are necessary for successful entering a higher education institution calling, abilities, existence of interest in knowledge acquisition isn't observed. The importance of finishing the good school to enter a higher education institution successfully is higher for children from families of type 1-4 (lower levels of education) and it is lower for graduates from families of type 5-6 where parents have higher or secondary specialized education.
As the level of parents’ education grows (from level 1 to 5), the significance of preparatory courses increases (from 52.4 to 67.3 % of responses), and it is only for those graduates whose both parents have higher education that this factor is of minor significance (50 % of responses). So is the situation concerning studies with tutors and awards at Olympiads. For boys from the families where the parents have higher education it is more important than for boys of their age from families with the lowest education (level 1-2) to live in a big city where a higher education institution is located.
The value of a high score for the Unified State Exam is important for children from families where parents have a higher level of education.
As for the impact of parents’ education on types of children's preparation before entering an educational institution the findings are presented in table 6.
Table 6. Impact of parents’ education on the choice of preparation for entering educational institution by graduates in %
Kinds
 of preparation
Graduates by gender
Boys
Girls
Level of parents’ education
1
2
3
4
5
6
Total
1
2
3
4
5
6
Total
On one’s own
80,0
72,2
76,5
57,1
81,3
74,3
75,5
69,2
90,0
78,9
96,8
82,1
78,9
81,4
With assistance of a tutor
50,0
16,7
38,2
50,0
37,5
51,4
42,8
46,2
15,0
39,5
38,7
48,2
53,9
43,9
At preparatory courses
20,0
22,2
29,4
42,9
39,6
32,4
32,2
23,1
30,0
28,9
45,2
37,5
36,8
34,0
Source: authors’ own source
The value of additional training is more significant for children from families where parents have higher education. According to table 6 (see table 6) the most obvious differences by the sort of preparation are seen in relation to “studies at preparatory courses”: both for male and female graduates if their parents have higher education a number of those who take these courses is half as much as a number of those whose parents have lowest education (boys-32.4 and 20.0 % correspondingly; girls – 36.8 and 23.1 %). Studies with a tutor are also chosen more often by children from families of highly educated parents.
Discussion
The historiographic analysis has shown the growth of the importance of higher education for school leavers in the Novosibirsk region over the past 20 years (76.7% in 1994, 81.1% in 1998 - 91% in 2014). The value of secondary specialized education, on the contrary, decreased (17.5% - 1994, 15.2% - 1998, 5.5% - in 2014) (Konstantinovsky 2008: 153; New meanings ..., 2015).
As a result of the study, we came to the conclusion that there is a relationship between the level of education of parents and educational strategies chosen by high school students. This influence is most noticeable in a group of girls.
We can say that the parents’ education appears to be a socially differentiating factor.
The youth whose parents have much higher level of education are mainly orientated at the higher education with the diploma of master than bachelor or that of a specialist. They almost do not plan studies at educational institutions of primary professional training. Secondary specialized education is chosen mainly by children from families where parents have low level of education.
Girls from families where parents have good higher education almost do not plan to study at evening courses or take correspondence courses.
The analysis of the values in relation to the choice of the educational strategy showed that for all school leavers, the acquisition of education is seen primarily as an opportunity for further professional development.
For students from families with a high level of education from parents, study is more important as an opportunity to expand social contacts, they consider the future profession in terms of its prestige in society, demand in Russia and abroad, the opportunity to become independent and even gain power.
For young people whose parents have a lower level of education, obtaining a diploma is the key to finding a job and earning an income. Differences in the perception of the value of education are ultimately due to the different attitudes of youth, formed, including by parents, with different levels of education. So for children whose parents have a higher level of education is more meaningfully quality education, interesting work. As the level of education of parents decreases, the children's orientation toward the value of achieving financial well-being increases.
Conclusion
The revealed relationship between the education of parents and the educational strategies of young people, as well as the values of education and profession that form in it, make it possible to justify the construction of forecasts for the educational plans of future generations. The young people currently educated in the near future will broadcast their ideas about the value of education for a new generation of Russians. In this regard, the development of not only predictions based on the revealed regularities, but also a preliminary analysis of the possible options for the development of Russian society, already allows us to develop and implement educational programs that will not only increase the value of education but also affect the quality of professional training and activities of Russian citizens.
 
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[1] National Research State University, Laboratory of sociology of science and education; Leading researcher of Institute of philosophy and right of the Siberian office of RAS, Novosibirsk (Russia), Email adress: marika24@yandex.ru, ORCID: 0000-0001-6923-3564
[2] Institute of Philosophy and Law, the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russia), Email adress: socis24@yandex.ru, ORCID: 0000-0002-3734-9447 
[3] Institute of Philosophy and Law, the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russia), Email adress: vkrash48@mail.ru, ORCID: 0000-0002-5167-7316