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Eun Jeon, Y. & Ran Lee, K. (2016). Direction and Tasks of Educational Policy for Students of Multicultural Families in Korea. Hungarian Educational Research Journal, 6(4), 35-60, DOI: 10.14413/HERJ.2016.04.04.
Direction and Tasks of Educational Policy for Students of Multicultural Families in Korea
Young Eun Jeon[1] & Kyung Ran Lee[2]
Abstract
This paper is a study on how to improve the government's educational support policy for multicultural students in Korea. In recent years, the proportion of people with diverse backgrounds has been increased due to the expansion of international human exchange and international marriage. Since 2006, the government has been promoting diverse educational support policies targeting multicultural families for smooth social adaptation. It is time to look at the changes in the multicultural education policy over the past 10 years and to think about the future direction based on this. Therefore, in this paper, the current status of children of multicultural families in Korea and the changes in education policy for each year were examined, and the measures to improve was found. As a result, first, multicultural students were suffering from poor learning, bullying and emotional shock due to lack of language skills, discrimination and prejudice, and economic difficulties. Also, there was a possibility of becoming a new marginalized class due to poor educational environment. Second, in the early stage of Korea's multicultural education policy, the assimilationism education policy aimed at a few multicultural families has changed into multiculturalism education policy that multicultural students and parents of multicultural families have self-respect for their culture and respect mutual culture as the main members of the society. Korea is now just starting to take a step towards multiculturalism. Therefore, it is necessary to set and practice social goals and educational goals through serious reflection considering Korea's actual situation, culture, and history.
Keywords: multicultural education, multicultural students, multicultural education policy, multiculturalism society
 
I. Introduction
In recent years, the proportion of people with diverse backgrounds has been increased due to the expansion of international human exchange and international marriage. Until the early 1980s, Korea was a country that sent human resources to Germany and the Middle East. However, due to the rapid economic development, small and medium enterprises have required labor that can be utilized as simple labor force since the 1990s. Also, in the early 1990s, when the bachelors of the rural areas were struggling to find a spouse, the project was carried out by the local governments to make a bachelor of the village be married. Women from China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Cambodia, Japan, and Mongolia were married to the village bachelor, which increased the number of married migrant women.
According to the Ministry of Justice statistics, the number of foreigners staying in Korea, which was 910,149 in 2006, became 2,036,163 as of September 2016 and accounted for 3.9% of the total population of 51,677,054. It has more than doubled in just 10 years. In terms of the total population, the number of foreigners in Korea was smaller than that in the US, Australia, Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, and France which entered the multicultural society earlier than Korea, but the number of foreigners in Korea is likely to continue to increase in the future. According to the recent announcement of Ministry of Education, the number of students in multicultural families was more than 1% of the total elementary, middle and high school students in 2014. Also, the number of preschool children was 2.12 million, thus, it is expected that the number of multicultural students entering elementary, middle and high schools will increase more. The first step was that President Roh Moo-hyun said, "Progress into multi-racial and multiculturalism is trend that can not be resisted" at the "Committee on correcting Gap between the rich and the poor, and Discrimination against the people in Korea" held on April 26, 2006. Which was the announcement that Korean society was entering multicultural society. Since then, laws such as the Multicultural Family Support Act and the Basic Law for the Treatment of Foreigners in Korea have been enacted. Also, various efforts have been made, such as multiculturalism and multicultural education policies for marriage migrant women and children of multicultural families were presented as official agendas. Each government department implemented multicultural policies, each local government established a center to support multicultural families, and the research on multicultural society and multicultural education was actively conducted. Several academic conferences which topics on multiculture were held and dozens of government research reports were published. As a result of increase in the number of foreign residents, it has been 10 years since Korea began to consider multicultural education as a policy initiative. Due to multicultural policies and news, multiculturalism has become a familiar word in Korean society.
As multicultural policies were poured at once, multiculturalism has become a commonplace in Korean society, and Korean society has been recognized as a multicultural society for a long time. However, the children of multicultural families still have difficulty adapting to Korean society due to cultural differences, social prejudice, and difficulty of communication. It was figured out that in particular, students of multicultural families were suffering from poor learning, bullying, and emotional shock due to lack of language skills, discrimination and prejudice, and economic difficulties. The Korean government, which recognized that multicultural families had the possibility of becoming a new marginalized class due to their poor educational environment, has been promoting education support policies and proceeding the project targeting students from multicultural families since 2006. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide basic data on future direction of multicultural education research and policy through analysis of the changes of multiculturalism and multicultural education policies in Korea.
II. Policy Category for Multicultural Education
1. Analysis Criteria for Multicultural Education Policy
The policy of the immigrants at the national level in Korea began in the 1990s. However, its history is shorter than Western society because it has been only ten years since Korean people started to pay attention to it. Based on immigrant adaptation patterns, Castles and Miller (2003) classified immigrant integration types as three categories such as 'Differential Exclusionary Model', 'Assimilationist Model' and 'Multicultural Model'.
The 'Differential Exclusionary Model' means that the immigrant communities block immigrant settlement in principle. The immigrant countries accept immigrants only as workers, but they do not accept them in social and political areas such as welfare, nationality (citizenship) and elections. Gastarbeiter in Germany and the foreign industrial training system in Korea are examples. The United States and Canada also apply a differential exclusion model for certain types of immigrants, including production workers. Because of globalization, the number of countries applying the ‘Differential Exclusion Model’ is decreasing (Seol, 2006).
The 'Assimilationist Model' allows immigrants to join as a citizen under the condition of cultural assimilation. Immigrants abandon the language, culture, and social characteristics of their native country and make it ideal to become a member of the mainstream society. For example, immigrants from various countries come together as if everything that melts into the melting pot is one, but it emphasizes social integration by assimilating into immigrant societies (Seol, 2006).
The 'Multicultural Model' allows immigrants to coexist with mainstream society by recognizing and encouraging their cultures. Immigrants can maintain their social characteristics such as language, habits, and religion. This is compared to Salad Bowl or Ethnic Mosaic to recognize cultural diversity and to apply it to social integration (Seol, 2006).
2. Analysis Framework of Multicultural Education Policy
In order to analyze the policy of multicultural education, the criterion I and the criterion II of the multicultural education policy categories were set up. The elements of the criterion I of the multicultural education policy category were divided into the concept and content of multicultural education, and the subject of multicultural education. The concept and contents of multicultural education were divided into three parts: first, the concept and content of multicultural education are missing or unclear, second, the adaptation of Korea and Korean culture are emphasized and third, the need for education for cultural diversity and respect for mutual culture is emphasized. The multicultural education targets were divided into five parts: Not eligible for multicultural education, students and parents in multicultural families, students and parents in general households and teachers. Table 1 summarizes the analysis criterion I of the multicultural education policy category.
Table 1: The analysis criterion I of the Multicultural Education Policy Category
Element
Degree
Multicultural education concept and contents
A. The concept and content of multicultural education are missing or unclear
B. Korean language and Korean culture adaptation are emphasized.
C. The need for education for cultural diversity and respect for mutual culture is emphasized.
Multicultural education subject
A. Not eligible for multicultural education
B. Multicultural students, parents
C. Multicultural family students, parents of multicultural families, general household students
D. Multicultural family students, multicultural family parents, general family students, teachers
E. Multicultural family students, multicultural family parents, general family students, teachers, parents
The analysis criterion Ⅱ for the multicultural education policy category was established by newly designing three analysis contents including the Differential Exclusion Model, the Assimilation Model and the Multiculturalism Model through combining the contents of the Multicultural Education Policy analysis criteria I of (Table 2).
First, in the case of the Differential Exclusion Model, there was no concept and content of multicultural education, and there was no target of multicultural education. In this case, it is classified as A·a.
Second, in case of the Assimilation Model, the concepts and contents of multicultural education are not clear or only Korean language and the migrants’ adaptation of Korean culture are emphasized even if there are concepts and content about multicultural education. Multicultural education is limited to multicultural students and their parents. In this case, they are classified as A·b and B·b, respectively.
Third, in case of the Multiculturalism Model, the need of education for cultural diversity and respect of mutual culture are emphasized. Multicultural education subjects include multicultural family students, multicultural family parents, general family students, teachers, and parents. This case is classified as C·c, C·d and C·e, respectively.
Table 2: The analysis criterion Ⅱ of the Multicultural Education Policy Category
Analysis contents
Characteristic
Combination
Meaning
Differen-tial exclusionary model
The immigration system is insufficient or does not exist.
A·a
There is no concept or content of multicultural education, and there is no target.
Assimila-tionist Model
Although there are related laws and systems for policy protection and support of migrants, the unilateral socio-cultural integration are emphasized for their stable settlement and social integration.
A·b
The concept and contents of multicultural education are not clear, but the target of multicultural education is restricted to multicultural students and their parents.
B·b
Immigrants' adaptation to Korea and Korean culture are emphasized, and the target of multicultural education is restricted to multicultural students and their parents.
Multicultural Model
Cultural diversity is emphasized. Multicultural education is based on understanding and respect of other cultures. The target of multicultural education is not limited to immigrants, but to all citizens.
 
C·c
Cultural diversity and respect for mutual culture are emphasized. Multicultural education students, multicultural family parents, and general family students are the targets of multicultural education.
C·d
Cultural diversity and respect for mutual culture are emphasized. Multicultural education targets include teachers in addition to multicultural family students, multicultural family parents, and general family students.
C·e
Cultural diversity and respect for mutual culture are emphasized. Multicultural education targets include parents of general family students as well as multicultural family students, multicultural family parents, general family students and teachers.
III. Background and Status of Multicultural Education Policy in Korea
1. Status of Multicultural Family Students
Multicultural family children can be divided into three categories. According to research of Cho (2006), the first is 'a child born between a Korean father and a foreign mother' or 'a child born between a Korean mother and a foreign father' as a child of an international marriage family. Second, as a child of a migrant worker's family, 'a child born by a migrant worker who is married in Korea' or 'a child of a family who has married in the home country and moved to Korea'. Third, as a child of North Korean refugee family, ‘a child who entered Korea after being born in North Korea’ or ‘a child born after entering Korea’. However, according to the 「Act on Support for Multicultural Families」, which is a current statute, the use of ‘multicultural families’ is limited. In the 「Multicultural Family Support Act」, the term 'multicultural family' is defined in Article 2, Paragraph 1 as a family who consists of a foreigner who has been married to a Korean citizen or who has a marital relationship with a Korean citizen who has obtained Korean nationality from birth, and a family who consists of a person who has been conferred Korean citizenship and a Korean citizen who has acquired Korean nationality from birth. In other words, children of a multicultural family are only children of a family who consists of a foreigner who has been married to a Korean citizen or who has a marital relationship with a Korean citizen who has obtained Korean nationality from birth, and a family who consists of a person who has been conferred Korean citizenship and a Korean citizen who has acquired Korean nationality from birth. However, the Ministry of Education (2012) categorized the children of multicultural families as children of international marriage families, children of foreign families and children of middle-income families. According to the classification of the Ministry of Education (2012), children of multicultural families are defined as children of international marriage families (domestic birth children, children in middle entry) and children of migrant workers.
According to the Ministry of Education statistics, as of 2015, the number of students from multicultural families was 82,536, which was 1.35% of the total number of students. Since 2006, while the total number of students has decreased year by year, the number of students from multicultural families has increased (compared to 2006 and 2015, while the total number of students has decreased by 7.8%, the number of multicultural students has increased by 11.3% (See Table 3).
Table 3: Trend of increase in multicultural students (unit: persons)
 
                             Total number
 
 Year
Number of multicultural students (A)
Total number of students (B)
Percentage of multicultural students
(A/B*100)
2006
9,389
7,822,527
0.12%
2007
14,654
7,782,667
0.19%
2008
20,18
7,664,215
0.26%
2009
26,015
7,494,603
0.35%
2010
31,788
7,284,295
0.44%
2011
38,678
7,036,504
0.55%
2012
46,954
6,771,039
0.69%
2013
55,78
6,529,196
0.85%
2014
67,806
6,333,570
1.07%
2015
82,536
6,137,374
1.35%
Source: Ministry of Education, 2016 Multicultural Support Plan
As shown in (Table 4), the number of students of multicultural families in 2015 was 68,099 (83%), followed by 8,176 foreign students (10%) and 6,261 students (8%) respectively. In terms of grade level, 60,283 elementary school students (73%) were the most common, followed by 13,865 students (17%) for middle school students and 8,388 students (10%) for high school students. According to the Ministry of Education Data (2015), preschoolers under 6 years of age among multicultural families were about 120,000, thus, it was expected to have a significant increase in school-age children in the future.
Table 4:  Number of students in multicultural families in 2015 (unit: persons)
Category
Elementary student
Middle school student
High school student
Sum
Domestic birth
50,279
11,075
6,745
68,099
Middle entry
3,988
1,393
880
6,261
Foreign family
6,016
1,397
763
8,176
Sum
60,283
13,865
8,388
82,536
Source: Ministry of Education, 2016 Multicultural Support Plan
As mentioned above, the number of students in multicultural families is increasing as Korea has recently entered a multicultural society. The Ministry of Education is implementing multicultural education policies for multicultural families and general students. For multicultural students, a preparatory school program for their lack of Korean language skills and school adjustment was made (eg, Hannuri School).  In order to enhance general students' understanding of multicultural society and multicultural students, the multicultural emphasis school was established.  However, the percentage of students who stopped studying in multicultural families has been increased year by year (0.7% in 2011, 0.8% in 2012, 1.0% in 2013, 1.0% in 2014, see Table 5). According to research of Cho (2006), children of multicultural families experienced severe learning disruption due to lack of language ability and confused identity.  In addition, it was reported that they could experience unhealthy emotional impacts due to bullying.  And they tended to lose their pride in their home country, embarrassing and hiding their home countries, and not being actively involved in school life because they were assigned to a grade that did not fit their age.  Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the policies of multicultural education in Korea as a measure to prevent cumulative learning deficits of multicultural students from various causes, and to look for directions.
Table 5: School dropout rate of students in multicultural families (unit: persons, %)
Year
Category
Elementary
Middle
High
Total
2011
(‘10.3~’11.2)
Number of enrolled students
24,701
5,260
1,827
31,788
Number of dropout students
97
83
35
215
School dropout rate (%)
0.4
1.6
1.9
0.7
2012
(‘11.3~’12.2)
Number of enrolled students
28,667
7,634
2,377
38,678
Number of dropout students
157
114
48
319
School dropout rate (%)
0.5
1.5
2.0
0.8
2013
(‘12.3~’13.2)
Number of enrolled students
33,792
9,647
3,515
46,954
Number of dropout students
292
122
73
487
School dropout rate (%)
0.8
1.2
2.1
1.0
2014
(‘13.3~’14.2)
Number of enrolled students
39,430
11,294
5,056
55,780
Number of dropout students
328
140
104
572
School dropout rate (%)
0.8
1.2
2.1
1.0
Source: Ministry of Education, Selection results and future plans of Regional Multicultural Education Support Center
2. The chronological enforcement list for the multicultural education policy
In 2006, the announcement of the Korean government presented on ‘The Children of Multicultural Families Educational Support Countermeasures’ has provided with the expansion of active movements in every kind of the multicultural education policy among new social members in Korean’s multicultural society. In Ministry of Education, this educational policy for the children of multicultural families has been preparing the enhancement of the support plan, the current education status for the children of international marriage families and foreign workers and the combinatorial support countermeasures of the students of multicultural families every year since 2006. This policy has come to the fore as a new educational system for the class of disadvantaged people. In this chapter, the progress of enhancement and the current status of the multicultural education policy of South Korea will be examined.
1) The educational support countermeasures for the children of multicultural families in 2006
In May 2006, Ministry of Education announced ‘The Children of Multicultural Families Educational Support Countermeasures’ which gained a strategic and systematic foothold on the preparation of the comprehensive support countermeasures of the children of multicultural families. The purpose of this education support business for the children of multicultural families of Ministry of Education is to support every child of multicultural families to receive various kinds of educational benefits from formal education without any restriction or isolation. That is, the countermeasures of preventing the discriminative eyes and educational isolation toward the children of multicultural families. However, ‘The Children of Multicultural Families Educational Support Countermeasures’ holds a greater significance of and in itself due to the very first establishment and enhancement of the support policy conducted for the benefits of the children of multicultural families.
In 2006, the government advocated the prevention countermeasures of the educational exclusion for the children of multicultural families by sharing the paradigm about Multiculturalism and co-hosting ‘Contest for Case Study Share of Multicultural Families Support’ with Ministry of Education, Justice, Administration, Health and Welfare and Gender Equality and Family for construction of networks and cooperative systems among the governments for the support of the multicultural families. Thus far, many kinds of educational policies for the children of multicultural families have begun to be explored by the governments. Also, the plan for active supports in building up the cooperative system of the multicultural families support was established by sharing the plans of each local community in which addressing each community’s uniqueness and considering its status. Thus, ‘The Children of Multicultural Families Educational Support Countermeasures’ was birthed from the realization of the necessity of social integration and protection of human rights of various members within the society. This countermeasure addresses the project of the educational support policy of the children of multicultural families, which entails 1) construction of the cooperative system among the governments for multicultural families support 2) construction of the cooperative system for multicultural families support in a local community 3) enhancement of supporting functions for the children of multicultural families in schools 4) enhancement of teachers’ competence for the education of the children of multicultural families 5) application of multicultural education requisite in school curriculum and textbooks 6) expansion of mentoring business of college students to the children of multicultural families and 7) distinct projects for targets of the policy (bilingual education for the children of international marriage families, social status stability of the children of illegal immigrants and so on.
2) The educational support countermeasures for the children of multicultural families in 2007
In 2007, the government was highly determined to fix and improve on the problems in which were associated in the projects and business in 2006. In 2007, the purpose of the policy was firstly to contribute to the social integration in which people can overcome the sense of exclusion and difference within the school and social life by acquiring the culture of Korean and South Korea in early stage of annulling the linguistic and cultural barrier. Secondly, as an organizing member of Korean society with the social sense of belonging, establishing the self-identity and overcoming the cultural prejudice through the expansion of understanding of the public on multi-culture.
In order to reach and fulfill the purpose, the consolidation of the school-based multicultural education was established through the execution of diversified school education policy and the consolidation of the understanding of the multicultural education in detailed enterprises. The detailed contents for the diversified school education policy are the attendance growth, the development of educational programs, the activation in the training for home teacher, the integrated educational support for each student. For the consolidation of the understanding of the multicultural education in detailed enterprises, the reformation of school curriculum, understanding, respects, prejudice, conquest and magnanimity, the education on a diversified research study, the reinforcement of the mass media and the public advertisement. Also in the 2007s, these are four projects of the policy of ‘The Children of Multicultural Families Educational Support Countermeasures’ which entail 1) designation and operation of ‘Joong-Ang Multicultural Education Center’ 2) execution of the education support business for the children of multicultural families 3) periodical assessment and management on performance 4) construction of other support system. Especially the establishment of ‘Joong-Ang Multicultural Education Center’ holds a greater significance of and in itself due to its national set-up of the center with full-scale support and modification for the multicultural education policy for the children of multicultural families like Education Office, Universities and other individual organizations.
3) The educational support countermeasures for the children of multicultural families in 2008
In 2008, ‘The Children of Multicultural Families Educational Support Countermeasures’ was examined and 1) expansion of the support for social integration and the adapted education system for diversified members of Korean society due to the increase in the number of marriage Immigrants and foreign workers 2) support for fostering the children of multicultural families into global talents who have a command of different languages for the fulfillment of ‘Talents Power’ and 3) enhancement of the synergy through a systematic connection of the multicultural education support policy. To be detailed, first, the purpose of the policy was to construct the social environment in which a consumer-centered practical field study is enhanced and the understanding of the multicultural education, the culture and history of the multicultural families are well-respected and understood. These points appear to be helpful for the expansion of the support for social integration and the adapted education for the diversified members of Korean society due to the increase in the number of marriage immigrants and foreign workers and also for the improvement of the academic skills and school adaptation of the children of multicultural families. This support policy aims for the right understanding of one’s family and background and the positive cultivation of self-identity of the children of multicultural families. So that, people of the multicultural families under the poor economic and social basis could receive the education in Korean and its culture understanding and the identity crisis followed by the poor academic skills, the annulled educational difference and social prejudice could be minimized. Secondly, the government of Myung-Park, Lee strived for the fulfillment of ‘Talents Power’ which initiated the support for fostering the children of multicultural families into global talents into global talents who have a command of different languages. Not only the research and development of the multicultural education were conducted but also, Korean textbooks and education programs and the core teachers fostering programs were created. Also, the local governments carried forward the multicultural-related education and built up its network according to the uniqueness of each city in each multicultural education center. Thirdly, the children of multicultural families were fostered under the value, personality and respect for originality of the multicultural pluralism through the annulment of the education difference, social integration and the enhancement of understanding mindsets of the children of common families under the systematic connection of the support policy. Through this policy, the government aimed to emphasize the ‘Pure Blood’ by making a great effort to plan of fostering teachers and parents with whom the mindsets toward multi-culture are opened.
More than anything, in 2008, ‘The Children of Multicultural Families Educational Support Countermeasures’ holds a greater significance of and in itself due to its comprehensive and systematic plan for 2009-2012, creating ‘Medium and Long-Term plan of the Education Support Plan for the Children of Multicultural Families’ unlike the previous years of short-term plan establishment. Needless to say, this new plan also holds a greater significance of constructing a detailed implementation according to the preference of each Education office in different cities and considering the children’s need of education among the central and local government. Also, the target of the policy has been lowered from elementary students to kindergarteners. Thus, the children of multicultural families who are not reached the school age, even the kindergarten, are able to receive the education at nearby kindergartens in 9 regions including Seoul, Gyeonggi and others.
4) The educational support countermeasures for the children of multicultural families in 2009
In 2009, the education support plan was focused on the purpose of the improvement on the public awareness of the multicultural families of the society by activating a better understanding of multi-culture of teachers, students and parents and also the recent increase supporting of the adapted education system under the consideration of the characteristics of the children of multicultural families. These are reasoned upon the necessity of supporting the adapted education system under the consideration of the characteristics of the child of multicultural families and also the improvement on the public awareness toward the multicultural families by teachers, students and parents. The core of the policy is 1) reinforcement of the activation, connection and construction of the multicultural education, 2) support for the field-study education and 3) understanding of the multicultural education and the support for the excavation of the multicultural families’ strength. For the purpose of completing these goals, firstly, many research studies on textbooks and programs related to the multicultural education were conducted at ‘Joong-Ang Multicultural Education Center for the reinforcement of the activation, connection and construction of the multicultural education. The government stated the possibility of establishing a lecture on the multicultural education in 10 different universities for imposing a better understanding of future teachers on multi-culture. Secondly, for the support of the field-study education, over 10 students of multicultural families are supported with Korean Education and other subject learning in about 46 schools and Mentoring Programs in which professors, college students and retires come to mentor the students of multicultural families and also the basic academic learning, extracurricular activities and cultural experience are held during the vacation seasons. The parents of multicultural families are also supported with Korean and Information Technology education programs, 1:1 Mentoring and Counseling between the parents of common and multicultural families. Thirdly, it is the support of the understanding of the multicultural education by the students of common families and for the excavation of the strength in the multicultural families; this could enhance the school’s discretion and extracurricular activities for ‘the understanding of the multicultural education’ and the specialized support program for fostering global talents by whom the students and parents of multicultural families are targeted. This enables the enhancement of sympathy by people through the activities of the multicultural experience.
5) The educational support countermeasures for the children of multicultural families in 2010
In 2010, when the range of the adapted multicultural education support business of 2009 was expanded and became a vision of ‘the realization of the multicultural society with learning and understanding with one another’, the educational support plan for the children of multicultural families was announced. This plan has led to the three goals of the annulment of the educational gap of the children, the enhancement of capacity of the parents and the expansion and enhancement of the multicultural society based on the multicultural education. This plan was birthed by the intent of annulling the linguistic and cultural gap and growing as a member of the majority society group and was aimed for the increasing support of the adapted education for the characteristics of the child of multicultural families and the improvement in educational achievement in early age. This vision and plan are followed by these four development strategies: 1) adapted education system upon the characteristics of one’s academic level and target, 2) expansion of the educational support in one’s weakness of infants and children of immigrants, 3) task division among institutions and the reinforcement of the connection between related institutions in the area and 4) activation of the support for the strength of the multicultural families. And these are detailed projects for the reinforcement of the multicultural education basis and support system: 1) adapted educational support for the children of multicultural families, 2) improvement of professionalism in the multicultural education of teachers, 3) support and its utilization of the parents in multicultural families, 4) educational support for the infants of multicultural families, 5) educational support for the children of immigrants and 6) reinforcement of the multicultural education basis and support system.
In 2010, these contents of the development do not necessarily demonstrate a big change from the previous one because it had been implemented since 2008. However, it holds a great significance of and in itself due to making the initiative to discover the vulnerable zone of the education for the infants of multicultural families; it has only reached to approximately 4,200 people that is 18.2% of children going to the kindergarten out of 23,058 children of the age 3 to 5 in the multicultural families. The education of infants and toddlers reflects the multicultural education in many different ways such as providing the information on diverse language for the education of infants and toddlers, constructing the education programs for the infants and toddlers of multicultural families, training for the kindergarten teachers and allowing the child and parent interactions in the educational settings.
6) The educational support countermeasures for the children of multicultural families in 2011
The multicultural education policy of the Korean government had greatly flourished and established the supporting plan as the number of remarried couples and children of immigrants. Firstly, ‘Global Bridge Business’ in which the students of multicultural families with the excellent academic talents are chosen to be fostered as the core educational human resources between South Korea and one’s native country. This is the educational program whose targets are the students of multicultural families with from Grade 5 in elementary school to Grade 2 in junior high school and whose parents are from Vietnam, Philippines and China. These programs are on leadership, worldwide citizenship, establishment of self-identity, the understanding of the multicultural education and international exchange and volunteer work up to 20~ 60 hours of classes. South Korean students are occasionally included in the programs to reciprocally understand the consolidated education of Multiculturalism.
Also in 2011, ‘Bridge of Educational Hope’ was restored to enable the movement of social status with the priority on the students of multicultural families with a coordinator in charge of North Korean Defectors. ‘Bridge of Educational Hope’ claims the justified society is a society in which no discrimination is dealt in job markets or opportunities for education and movement of social status is enabled and its reward is equal to the amount of the effort exerted. That is, the slogan of Education and Welfare Division that is initiated by the government. As a result, there have been sound school expenses provided for the children of multicultural families and North Korean Defectors.
And ‘Enforcement Decree of Elementary and Junior High Education’ (Article 19, Article 75, and Article 89 No.2) was established by the educational support for the children of multicultural immigrants in December 27, 2010. This law entails that the children of multicultural immigrants could enter the schools with the submission of the reports which have the proof of foreign residency in South Korea. So the children who were unable to be enrolled as students in schools due to their non-residency before the school age have now been approved to enter the schools since 2011.
7) The educational support countermeasures for the children of multicultural families in 2012
In 2012, the most remarkable aspect on the policy of the multicultural education in Ministry of Education was that ‘The Advancement Plan for the Education of the Students of Multicultural Families in 2012’ was announced for growth of creative global talents who understand the diversity of every student and ‘Korean Education Curriculum’, which was included in the revision of the education curriculum of 2009.            
The number of students of multicultural families was 0.19% in 2007, 0.35% in 2009 and 0.55% in 2011 and is assumed to be 0.87% in 2013 and 1.12% in 2014. The increased number of students of multicultural families has proposed a new direction of the education policy and that is called ‘The Advancement Plan for the Education of the Students of Multicultural Families in 2012’. Firstly, the management of the preparatory schools in the public education and the multicultural education coordinators for the students of multicultural families. Secondly, the introduction of Korean Sign Language (KSL) and the reinforcement of the basic academic skills training which enabled the students of multicultural families to take KSL course as formal school education. Thirdly, the reinforcement of the bilingual education for the students of common and multicultural families which purports to the development of textbooks in various levels for Vietnamese, Thai, Mongolian and Russian language and the development of EBS broadcast programs and its distribution. Fourthly, the reinforcement of the training for the future career and further school education of the students allows the management of ‘Da-Som School’ which specializes in the vocational training. Fifthly, the promotion of 150 pioneering schools for the students of multicultural families to have a more multicultural-amiable school environment. Lastly, the distribution of the multicultural-amiable textbooks for the reinforcement of the support for the students and parents of multicultural families and the expansion of the lifelong education centers for the parents of multicultural families from 11 to 16 places.
These contents are all included in ‘The Advancement Plan for the Education of the Students of Multicultural Families in 2012’ which has become the all-inclusive integration of the multicultural education experiences. The inclusion of ‘Korean Education Curriculum’ in the revision of the education curriculum of 2009 enabled the National level of education curriculum to be classified into three sections: the education subject matters curriculum, the creative experiential activities curriculum and the Korean education curriculum (Jae-Myung, Lee, 2014).
8) The educational support countermeasures for the children of multicultural families in 2013
In 2013, the most remarkable aspect on the policy of the multicultural education in Ministry of Education was the expansion of the special class for the students of multicultural families in ‘Enforcement Decree of Elementary and Junior High Education’ established by law in October 22, 2013. This examines firstly, the installation of the special class for the students and the proposal of the standard of qualification of teachers. This allows not only the installation of the special class but also, the entering and transferring of the students without the proof of residency in South Korea. This also provides the basis to hire the teachers for the multicultural languages and establish the necessary standard of qualification. Secondly, the preparation for the deliberation system (Article 54 No. 5 and 6) on the academic interruption provides with counseling and career searching programs under the recommendation of a school principal. This offers the opportunity of the deliberation and the basis for the recognition of the deliberation period as attendance. Thirdly, the expansion of the targets of Deliberative Council of Academy (Article 98 No.2), which includes North Korean defectors and the students of multicultural families who are in a delicate situation to be issued with the proof of enrollment. This allows the academic background of these students to be recognized through Deliberative Council of Academy.
9) The educational support countermeasures for the children of multicultural families in 2014
In 2014, the vision of the multicultural education policy was the fulfillment of harmonious multicultural society through the global cultivation of citizenships. The five domains for the development were 1) fulfillment of the research on the multicultural education policy 2) business management and its support for the multicultural education 3) contents development of the multicultural education for raising the public awareness on Multiculturalism 4) reinforcement of the capacity of the related parties on the multicultural education and 5) construction and promotion of networks of the multicultural education.
Firstly, there has been an effort of finding the support of the educational plan for the stable settlement of the children of resettlement of the refugees, the support of the career education plan and the derivation of effective support system for the fulfillment of the research on the multicultural education policy. Secondly, the business management and its support for the multicultural education, the school management focused on the support for the multicultural education and the support for the management of research schools for Korean education curriculum made progress. Thirdly, the contents of the multicultural education for raising the public awareness on Multiculturalism were developed upon the training data of the multicultural education. This data connects the advertisement of the public awareness on Multiculturalism and the education curriculum of Junior High school. Fourthly, the reinforcement of the capacity of the related parties on the multicultural education focused on training the coordinator in charge of Multiculturalism and hosting the workshop of the people who are in charge of Multiculturalism in Education Offices. This advocates the reinforcement of the connected cooperation and also of one’s professionalism. There is also the duty training for the reinforcement of the capacity of teachers and faculties working in preparatory schools, specialized schools and research schools. Lastly, there are several businesses to support the consulting of the business management of cultural education centers for seeking the examination of the directionality of the multicultural education and the activation plan such as opening the forum of the multicultural education, the contest exhibition of excellence case in the multicultural education and the distribution of those collections.
10) 2015 Education Support Measures
The educational support measures for multicultural students in 2015 were ① to strengthen basic education and medical education through customized education, ② to strengthen education for understanding of multiculturalism, ③ to link government departments, and to improve policy efficiency through linkage within the region.
The details of this were as follows. First, as a policy for strengthening basic education and career education through customized education, it was decided to intensively provide Korean language and Korean culture adaptation programs so that children who had difficulty in the Korean language and entered Korea midway could adapt well at regular schools. Also, in order to provide customized Korean language education tailored to the characteristics of multicultural students, Korean language learning was complemented in 'KSL (Korean as a second language)' curriculum, and Korean language acquisition and academic achievement were supported by developing and applying measurement tools that could measure the degree of Korean language achievement. In addition, a project of college students Mentoring (4,000 students) who supported individual learning for the purpose of enhancing the basic academic ability of multicultural students was conducted. Also, a Global Bridge project that provided specialized education by finding multicultural students with excellent bilingual, math and science was operated as well as the Universities which were operating Global Bridge project were expanded from existing ten universities to 17 universities. In addition, if multicultural students in general high schools wish to have vocational education, the institutions that could provide vocational education support for them were expanded from 10 institutions to 15 institutions. Second, strengthening understanding of multicultural education was carried out by appointing 150 Multicultural emphasis schools in order to increase general students’ acceptance and understanding of multiculturalism. Also, in order for preliminary and in-service teachers to enhance the understanding of multicultural students and to strengthen the guidance ability of multicultural students, multicultural understanding education on-line and off-line in various duties and qualification training was conducted. In addition, creating a healthy growth environment for multicultural students was supported by conducting parents education such as communicating with children and providing information about school life and career progression, and holding conferences. Third, in order to enhance policy efficiency through inter-ministry linkages and local linkages, the demonstration project to develop a local multicultural education model supporting the multicultural education of the school was operated though linking and utilizing multicultural policy resources in the region.
In addition, the measures such as education support for multicultural preschool children, education for multicultural parents, support for entrance of students in midway entry into public education and activities related to the education information of multiculturalism through the Ministerial Meeting of Social Ministerial Relations related to the education support of multicultural students.
3. Self-examination of Multicultural Education Policy
1) Measures and plans of education support for multicultural students
The Ministry of Education has set up a support plan for students from multicultural families every year from 2006 to 2016. In addition, they are making efforts to improve their educational environment through various research projects every year. In particular, it operates a preliminary school (26 in 2012, 50 in 2013, 80 in 2014, 100 in 2015) and a multicultural coordinator in order to solve the problem of maladjustment due to culture and language of middle-entry students and foreign students. In the case of the preparatory school, it is a place where students of multicultural families can receive pre-adjustment education before they are placed in regular schools, and they can be educated about Korean and Korean culture for about 6 months. The Multicultural Coordinator supports admissions counseling, school placement, and follow-up management for multicultural students.
In addition, the Ministry of Education has established a cooperative system with government ministries such as the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family, and has helped multicultural students participate in society as a true member of society and feel the reward of life so that they can adapt to Korean society by utilizing various resources such as schools, local governments, multicultural family support centers, university lifelong education institutions, and private organizations .
2) Research and development support for multicultural education
In 2007, the Ministry of Education designated Seoul National University Multicultural Education Research Center as the 'Central Multicultural Education Center'. The Central Multicultural Education Center has studied and developed multilingual Korean language textbooks for multicultural students, language and history of each country, and reference materials for cultural teachers. In 2008, the Center developed a core teacher training program for multicultural education and established a network for multicultural education. In 2009, the Center developed job training programs for multicultural education teachers in primary and secondary schools and trained them. Also, it published educational materials and Guidebooks in order to help them understand the culture and society of Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines and Mongolia which account for a large number of multicultural families in Korea. The Center also produced multicultural understanding education video materials, developed and operated a lifelong education program for multicultural families that general family parents could understand and interact with multicultural families. From 2013, the National Institute for Lifelong Education has been playing the role of 'Central Multicultural Education Center'. As of 2016, the 'Central Multicultural Education Center' has been responsible for multicultural education for multicultural education in the city and provincial offices of education (regional multicultural education support center), schools (elementary, middle and high school, and alternative educational facilities), and lifelong educational institutions (parent education, Immigrant Literacy Education, Global Citizenship Education). The promoting areas are as follows; first, support for multicultural education policy and conducting research, second, multicultural education project management and operation, third, multicultural education data and contents development, fourth multicultural education, and fifth, conducting multicultural education policy research.
3) Support for customized multicultural education
As a part of the project to support multicultural education in consideration of the conditions of each city and provincial office of education, there are multicultural education base schools. Multicultural base schools are schools which are many students in multicultural families attending and 45 schools in 2010, 46 schools in 2010, 80 schools in 2011, and 120 schools in 2012 were designated. The base school supports Korean language education and curriculum learning maps of multicultural students, and educates and trains students and parents in the surrounding area.
Starting in 2012, preparatory schools to receive intensive education in Korean and Korean culture before multicultural students (especially middle-entry students) enroll in regular schools have been set up and operated (26 in 2012, 50 in 2013, 80 in 2014, 100 schools in 2015, and 110 schools in 2016). The preparatory school arranges Korean language instructors, bilingual instructors and counselors to support early adaptation of multicultural students, and when they complete the course, it helps them return to their original school or transfer to other multicultural schools.
From 2015, also multicultural kindergartens that support language and basic learning of preschool children in multicultural families have been operated (30 in 2015 and 60 in 2016). Multicultural kindergartens educate multicultural and general family children after integrating them and carry out customized education considering the developmental stages and characteristics of multicultural family children.
4) Improvement of education rights for multicultural students
Under the existing law, children of illegal immigrants could not enter or transfer to schools in Korea. However, in accordance with the recommendation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, the revision of the in 2008 was made, thus, it became possible for children of illegal aliens to receive equal education. If children who live illegally are found to be living in a lease contract or a residence permit, they can enter middle school because they are able to enroll in or transfer to schools in Korea.
IV. Analysis on Korea Multicultural Policy and Multicultural Education Policy
So far, the background of Korea's multicultural education policy and the progress of each year have been examined. Based on this, Korea's multicultural policy and multicultural education policy were classified as Differential Exclusion Model, Assimilation Model, and Multiculturalism Model. Also, in this paper, it was shown that Korean multicultural policy and multicultural education policy has been changed from the Assimilation Model to the Multiculturalism Model through the criterion I of the policy analysis on multicultural education policy and the criterion II of the policy analysis on multicultural education.
1. Differential Exclusion Model (1990’s)
The multicultural policy of Korea during this period can be called the formation period.
Korea has experienced rapid economic growth in the 1980s, and the trend that evaded 3D (Dirty, Dangerous and Difficult) sectors of the small and medium manufacturing and construction industries appeared. In order to alleviate the labor shortage, a large number of foreign workers were introduced. In 1991, the government introduced the 'Overseas Invested Enterprise Trainee System' to introduce foreigners as trainees instead of workers. However, it did not contribute much to solving the manpower shortage of small manufacturing and construction industry, and many foreigners were illegally employed. To solve these problems, the “Foreigners' Industrial Training System” was introduced in 1993. However, the “Foreigners' Industrial Training System” classified foreign workers as simple-functioning workers, focused on how to allow them to enter and stay in certain conditions, and to impose strong restrictions on entry qualifications. As a result, illegal immigrants increased and human rights violations began to arise. Thus, in 1995, the Ministry of Labor enacted the "Guidelines for the Protection and Management of Foreign Industrial Trainees". The “Guidelines for the Protection and Management of Foreign Industrial Trainees” covered not only the minimum wage, working hours, holidays and holidays of foreign workers but also the prohibition of assault, industrial accident and compensation insurance.
In addition, the marriage of men in agriculture, mountain and fishing villages became a problem as women in these villages became employed in cities due to the economic growth of Korea in the 1990s. As a result, the number of married migrant women began to increase as a result of the project entitled 'Making the Rural Bachelor get married' at the local organization level. According to the 「Nationality Act」, in the past, only when the father was a citizen of the Republic of Korea, he was a paternalist who gave his children nationality. According to the 「Nationality Act」 revised in 1997, the parent-paternalism that if either father or mother is a Korean national, he or she gives the child has been enacted and the factors to discriminate between the sexes have been abolished. In addition, marriage immigrants can apply for permanent residence if they live in Korea for two years or more after marriage, and reside in Korea for more than one year after three years of marriage.
In September 1999, the "Act on Immigration and Legal Status of Overseas Koreans" was enacted to provide legal preferential treatment for compatriots. However, since Korea did not have diplomatic relations with the communist countries until the early 1990s, Koreans living in China and CIS regions were excluded.
As mentioned above, there were systems related to immigrant in this period, but this was aimed at restricting settlement of immigrants and there was no policy content for multicultural education.
2. Assimilation Model (the early and middle of 2000s)
The Korean multicultural policy in this period can be said to be the beginning of the era.
According to the Ministry of Justice statistics, the number of migrant foreign workers in Korea was about 363,000 in January 2003, but about 287,000 (79.1%) were illegal aliens. The “Foreigners' Industrial Training System” introduced in 1993 was criticized as a system for mass production of illegal aliens because it was a policy to use industrial trainees who could not exercise labor rights. The Korean government established a system called the 'Employment Permit System' in 2004 and abolished the “Foreigners' Industrial Training System” in 2007 in order to solve the problems such as human rights violation and illegal stay of immigrants and to guarantee the labor rights of migrant workers.
In the mid - 2000s, as international marriage increased, policy interest in multicultural families grew. In particular, in 2008, the Multicultural Family Support Act was enacted, and various efforts were made, including multicultural policies for marriage migrant women and children of multicultural families being announced on the official agenda. According to the "Nationality Act" amended in 2004, in addition to allowing the applicant to reside in Korea for more than two years after marriage, or to reside in Korea for one year or more after three years marriage, if the woman was unable to live a normal marriage without her reasons, or if the spouse was missing or has died, the Minister of Justice recognized it and let them apply for permanent residence. A person who was nurturing or was responsible for nurturing a minor was authorized by the Minister of Justice to apply for permanent residence. By establishing the "Multicultural Family Support Act" and amending the "Nationality Act", the marriage immigrant women were made easier to acquire nationality in order to improve the unstable legal status of married immigrant women and protect their children.
The Act on the Immigration and Legal Status of Overseas Koreans was amended in 2004 to eliminate discrimination against Chinese and CIS nationals and allow free entry and employment.
During this period, a large number of related laws and regulations were created to provide policy protection and to support for migrants. As interest in multicultural education has increased, the Ministry of Education has invested a lot of funds for multicultural education. However, it can be seen that multicultural education is limited to multicultural students and their parents.
3. Multicultural Model (late 2000s ~)
Korea's multicultural policy during this period is a growing period.
In order to guarantee the labor rights of foreign workers, the "Employment Permit System" established in 2004 was designed to recognize foreign workers as workers and made employment contracts renew with employers every year in order to guarantee their labor rights. Foreign workers are required to conclude labor contracts for employment conditions such as wages, working hours and holidays, in order to prevent employers from discriminating.
Since the mid-2000s, the government has been carrying out various multicultural projects for married immigrants and multicultural students. It also cultivates multicultural experts (lecturers) by department such as Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Gender Equality and Family, Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Education. In May 2008, the Ministry of Justice selected the Active Brain Tower (ABT), a major base university for integrating multicultural society, in order to cultivate multicultural society experts. In addition, in July 2012, according to the Department of Immigration Control Act (Article 39, Paragraph 3) and Article 19 of the "Immigrant Integration and Management Program", a degree program for cultivating multicultural social experts was created (Jeong & Jeon, 2016).
In 2007, the 'Visiting Employment Act' for legitimate employment of Chinese and CIS Korean nationals was introduced. 'Visiting employment system' allowed foreign nationals over 25 years of age to freely enter Korea if they had domestic family register or family members. In case compatriots who did not have any family members in Korea, it was allowed them to enter the country within the range of annual allowable number of people, and visiting employment ensuring a 5-year valid and at least one 3-year stay was guaranteed. In 2010, through the 'Overseas Koreans Technical Training Program', the Korean immigration and residence status of Korean compatriots was diversified so that Chinese compatriots could acquire Overseas Korean visa and permanent resident status (Kim, Pan-jun, 2014).
This period did not change the multicultural policy much compared to the period of the Assimilation Model (early and middle of 2000s). However, the concepts and content of multicultural education have changed from the emphasizing on Korean language and adaptation of Korean culture to enhancing understanding for cultural diversity and mutual respect of the general public. In the case of multicultural education, it can be seen that multicultural students and their parents were education targets before, but general family students and parents, and teachers are included in the education target now.
4. Sintering
Until now, the educational policy for Korean students in multicultural families has made many achievements, mainly in the Ministry of Education. These multicultural education policies have been helpful not only for multicultural students and their families, but also for teachers who need to teach multicultural students at school, and for ordinary family students who have to live together in school.
The year 2016 has marked the eleventh year since the Ministry of Education started its multicultural education policy in earnest. The government announces multicultural education policies annually and supports many research projects. However, it is also true that there are many aspects that are insufficient in comparison with actual investment and effort. Therefore, there is a need to reconsider the problems in the implementation of multicultural education and to find new directions for it.
V. Conclusion
1. Summary
The educational policies for children of multicultural families that Korean government is promoting are; first is "contributing to social integration through resolution of language and cultural barriers." It means overcoming the alienation and heterogeneity in school and social life by learning Korean and Korean culture early. The second is to "increase social attribution and multicultural sensitivity," which is to establish the self-identity of a child of a multicultural family as a member of Korean society (Park, Seong-hyuk, 2008). The Korean government's educational policy on multicultural education which has such a direction, has a short history, but shows a slight difference by year.
First of all, in 2006, when the "Education Support for Children of Multicultural Families" was implemented, adaptation education for minority was a big part. The purpose of multicultural education was to support children of multicultural families from being neglected or alienated from formal education. And this policy direction was continuing until 2008. In order to prevent the alienation of multicultural families, the Korean government has focused on programs related to their support for school adaptation and scholastic support, in particular, support of Korean language and basic learning, and developing stable emotions.
The basic premise of multicultural education should be respect for diversity. However, the early Korean multicultural education policy has been practiced in order to solve the problem that students of multicultural families have difficulty in adapting to school and low academic achievement. It is believed that standardized standards such as standardized academic achievement assessment are given preference rather than respect for diversity. This policy has been criticized for not being able to respect the diversity of multiculturalism and to take into consideration the cultural background of the culture, which may lead to concern that the people of the minority culture may be brought to the periphery. The priority of the various support measures for multicultural family children is to respect their personal characteristics and to suggest that learning should be linked in the context of their lives. In order to do so, it was argued that various activities should be developed to broaden the understanding between students and teachers, and that learning related to multicultural education should be conducted throughout the curriculum.
Then, the policies to support education for multicultural families made in 2009 and 2010, began to be emphasized in order to stimulate multicultural understanding among teachers, general students and general parents in addition to customized education for multicultural families. Customized education programs for multicultural families started in 2009 include mentoring programs and policies centering on base schools, “The implementation of a multicultural society that live together with learning and understanding” in 2010 and the "Global Bridge Business" in 2011. The Mentoring Program was a multi-cultural educational council established by the Department of Education, college students, and schools to help students learn about the home environment and learning of multicultural families. In addition to providing support for learning, by forming a bond between each other, practical help was given in more stable emotional development. In addition, multicultural education centered on the base schools has been designated as a teacher for multicultural families, and has provided various support for multicultural families. The Ministry of Education actively promoted these policies and implemented individualized education programs such as focusing on programs for stable emotional support as well as support for the alienation of multicultural families. In addition, the project to strengthen the capacity of multicultural family members, such as supporting and cultivating international leaders' programs to understand the culture of their parents, cultivate leadership and grow into global talents for multicultural families was promoted.
This progressive development has brought about changes such as 'advancement of education for multicultural students' in 2012 and 'Korean language curriculum' in the revised curriculum in 2009, and the actual amendments were made in 2013. In the early stages of multicultural education policy, the emphasis on Korean language and culture education for adaptation to Korean society is gradually shifting to bilingual education and multicultural understanding education. Through this, the direction of education is being shifted toward the pursuit of cultural diversity in mutual understanding Education policy. In other words, it shows that the education policy of the Assimilation targeting on the only a few multicultural families education is changing to the multiculturalism that the students and parents of the multicultural families have the self-respect of their own culture and respect mutual culture as the main members of the society.
In addition, with the vision of realizing a harmonious multicultural society through the cultivation of global citizen consciousness in 2014, efforts have been made to provide career education support and efficient support system considering their characteristics for stable settlement of multicultural students. At the same time, the efforts developing educational programs for general students to raise awareness of multiculturalism have been made. In addition, it is promoting a project for the development of multicultural education contents to raise awareness of multiculturalism, such as public awareness promotion project of general public and development of multicultural education instructional materials linked with curriculum in secondary education. Furthermore, in order to strengthen staffs’ professionalism and cooperation, the efforts of various aspects such as job training for multicultural education teachers working in preparatory schools, core schools, and research schools have been made.
2. Suggestions
In Korea, multicultural education policy has been implemented rapidly by institutionalization of multicultural education support policy centered on Ministry of Education. As a result, not only the educational and research aspects, but also the social aspects have made many changes. Based on the results of this study, the following suggestions for Korean multicultural education policy have been made.
First, it is necessary to study the policy of multicultural education from various perspectives. Since the mid-2000s, in addition to the interest of multicultural education, multicultural education has been pursued in various ways. Multicultural education has a close relationship with rural policies, educational policies, family policies, immigration policies, welfare policies, cultural policies and unemployment policies. Therefore, the study on multicultural education is carried out by a group of scholars who have diverse majors such as pedagogy, social education, politics, administration, law, cultural anthropology, Korean language education, art education, music education, and physical education. In other words, since multicultural education can be accessed from various academic fields, scholars in various fields are conducting research (Jeon, 2015). However, there are not so many papers analyzing the correlation between multicultural education policy and multicultural policy. In this study, the multicultural education policy was analyzed by formulating criterion of the multicultural education policy and applying to the integration type of immigrants of Kassler and Miller. However, similar studies need to be attempted from a different point of view.
Second, serious reflection is needed before realizing multicultural education policy. Korea has a short history in the policy of multicultural education and has made many changes during that period. The most significant feature is that Korea's educational policy is changing from an assimilation policy to a multicultural education policy. However, since Korea has long emphasized on a single ethnic and ethnic culture, Korean society, in which rejection of other cultures become unconscious, requires much more effort than other countries in promoting multicultural education policy. It is necessary to find out enough discussion and consensus through serious reflection before the implementation of education policy and to implement the policy after establishing direction of how multicultural education should be and how it should be developed in Korean society. In that, the part about difference should come from 'Respect' rather than 'Discrimination', and through respect, both Korean and migrants should be able to create Korean culture as an important member to lead Korean society. In order to do so, education policy should be regarded as a civic education that should be implemented throughout Korean society, not education targeting migrants. The first problem that multicultural families have in adapting to Korean society is their understanding of Korean and Korean culture, but the later differential treatment makes them more difficult. And most of all, it is necessary to understand that the issue of multicultural education derives from the communication between cultures made up of various standards such as gender, religion, disability, social minority, etc., apart from the awareness, communication, consideration and respect between the culture of other countries and their own culture.
Korea is now just starting to take a step towards multicultural policy. Therefore, discussions on how to set up and promote social goals and educational goals can not but be varied. However, it is considered that serious reflection and practice are needed in consideration of Korea's actual situation, culture, and history, rather than following the multicultural policies of various countries as it has taken a long history in implementing multicultural education policy.
 
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[1] Instructor at Gyeongin National University of Education, Korea. Email address: cherry46@hanmail.net
[2] Adjunct Professor, Department of Early Childhood Education, Chang An University, Korea. Email address: dearbyam@hanmail.net