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Current Developments with Inclusive Education Policy and Practice in Bulgaria and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Keywords: inclusive education, integration, special educational needs, disability, defectology, Roma

This article builds on a previous publication in the European Journal of Special Needs Education (Tsokova & Becirevic (2009) and examines further developments of inclusive education in Bulgaria (BG) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). The paper seeks to provide local and cross-national insight into the current state of and influences on developments with inclusive education. The underlying research considers relevant local and international literature and education policies, and explores the perspectives of a small sample of key policy makers’ from both countries. The findings suggest that inclusive education reforms as they relate to children with special educational needs and disabilities in both countries face some unique and other similar challenges associated with external and internal pressures embedded in historical, political, economic and educational circumstances. The authors argue that democratisation of the inclusive education policy making process and bottom-up grass root developments are essential for a sustainable reform that could go beyond integration and policy rhetoric.


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Learning opportunities for students with SEN in the mainstream education system: